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语法考点荟萃--强调句

2021-02-22 18:12:49| 来源:教师招聘网 点击量: 5

1.强调句的类型

(1)用It is / was…that / who…句型表示强调。

被强调的部分(通常是句子的主语、状语、宾语或宾语补足语)放在is / was的后面,如被强调的是人,则后面可用who,whom等代替。

It was an old friend that / who he met in the park yesterday.

(2)not … until …句型的强调句

句型为:It is / was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其他部分。例:

普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.

注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是强调句型,till,until可通用,因为句型中It is/ was not… 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

(3)谓语动词的强调

It is / was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do / does或did。

Do sit down. 请坐。

He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。

Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!

注意:此种强调只用do/ does和did,没有别的形式;过去时用did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

(4)从句的强调

①强调状语从句

I came home late because it was raining hard.

It was because it was raining hard that I came home late.

(注意:被强调的原因状语从句只能用because引导,不能用as或since引导)

②强调主语从句

What you said really made us sad.

It was what you said that really made us sad.

2.强调句型的判断

把“It,be,that”去掉,如果剩余部分句子结构仍然完整(被强调部分要还原到原位置),那么这个句子就是强调句;如果句子不完整,则不是强调句。例:

(1) It is he who/ that often helps me with my English.

(2) It is on the hillside that we plant trees every year.

(3) It was because of bad weather that the football match had to be put off.

分析:去掉It is/ was... that/ who 句子后结构仍然完整,句意仍明确,都是强调句。

(4) It was 9 o’clock when we came back.

(5) It was 3 hours since we had come back.

分析:在上面例句中若去掉It was... when / before / since等后,句子结构就不完整,而且强调句型的后半句只能由that/who引导,所以不是强调句。

3.强调句型注意事项

(1)句首词用“It”,不能用“This”,“That”等。

(2)若原句的谓语动词用了现在时或将来时,则用is;若原句的谓语动词用了过去时或过去完成时,则用was。

(3)被强调的部分如果是代词,强调主语用主格,强调宾语用宾格。例:

① It was him that / who / whom I met in the street yesterday.

② It was I who / that made that decision.

(4)连接词一般用that,当强调部分是人时,既可用that也可用who。特别注意当强调部分是时间状语或地点状语时,不能用when或where。例:

It was on Oct 1st, 1949 that People’s Republic of China was founded.

(5)主谓一致问题:

被强调的主语要和that后面的谓语动词在数上保持一致。

(6)not… until 结构的强调:

强调“not…until”引导的时间状语时,要用“it is/was not until…that…”结构,that后面的句子要用肯定式,且须用陈述句语序。例:

We did not get off the bus until it stopped.

It was not until it stopped that we got off the bus.

【典型例题】

It was playing computer games _____ cost the boy plenty of time _____ he ought to have spent doing his homework.

A. that; that B. which; that C. which; when D. that; when

【答案】A。解析:考查强调句型和定语从句。It is/was被强调成分that/who其它成分;这是强调句型的基本结构。强调句型最大的特点就是把it is/was…that/who去掉,句子仍然成立。第一空强调playing computer games.第二空是定语从句,that指代先行词plenty of time作为spend的宾语。故选A。

 

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标签: 强调句 英语语法考点荟萃

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